Have you ever wondered what kind of fiber is used to make Santa’s beards and doll hair? Many times, it’s mohair. Prized for its clarity and luster, mohair is one of Crockett County’s ranching products. Not to be confused with Angora fiber, which is produced by rabbits, mohair is the fleece of Angora goats. Not a sheep which is shorn once a year, Angoras produce two fleeces per year. Soft and lightweight, the mohair is highly sought after by weavers for all kinds of products, such as fine yarns, carpets, upholstery and clothing.
The Angora breed originated near Ankara, Turkey, from which the name is derived. Some scholars believe Angoras have been cultivated as far back as the 15th century B.C. because they are referenced in Sumerian cuneiform tablets as well as the Bible. The first documented Angora goats were sent to the United States as a gift from the Sultan Abdülmecid I of Turkey in 1849. The grateful Sultan sent nine adult goats to Dr. James P. Davis to show his appreciation for services and advice on raising cotton. More Angoras were later imported, but their numbers dropped significantly during the Civil War. Eventually, Texas became one of the primary mohair producers in the world due to the abundance of grasses and shrubs available for grazing.
Until recently, white Angoras have been preferred. But there is a small and growing market for colored Angoras. The Colored Angora Goat Breeders Association was set up in 1998 to promote breeding of these animals. These specialized Angoras can produce black (deep black to greys and silver), red (the color fades as the goat ages) and brownish fiber. Crockett County’s Angoras are still primarily white. An adult Angora will produce as much as ten to twelve pounds of mohair per year. The mohair fiber garments can be packed in less space than wool and resist wrinkling. Essentially non-flammable, the mohair fiber has a tensile strength that rivals steel of the same diameter.
Considered by some to be a high-maintenance animal, the Angora goat has been very successful in Crockett County. Besides that, baby goats like those seen in the photograph are just so CUTE!
Texas is home to many species of squirrels, including the fox squirrel found throughout Crockett County. Actually a member of the rodent family, these very adaptable creatures flourish where large mature trees provide lots of shade and prevent under-brush from growing. Squirrels can be seen gathering food and playing in the branches of many pecan trees in the parks and tree-lined streets of Ozona. Nuts form a large part of the squirrels’ diet, but they will also eat insects, buds, green shoots, fruits and other seeds.
An adult squirrel usually weighs less than two pounds and will be about twenty inches long. Older females usually have two sets of young each year, around March-April and June-July. Litters of two to four babies are born blind, naked and helpless. They must be cared for in the nest until they about seven or eight weeks old. By the time they are about three months old, they can fend for themselves, but will not bear young of their own until they are about ten or eleven months old.
When feeling threatened, the fox squirrel will hide rather than run. It will lie motionless or move to the opposite side of a limb or tree trunk, peeking around to watch the movement of the predator. As the threat moves, the squirrel will shift so the tree will remain between it and the predator at all times.
Squirrels have been a popular game animal and were such a large part of the early rural menu they were given the nickname “limb chickens”. Though not eaten as much today, squirrel stew is still a favorite of many Texans, although most think that the gray squirrel found in east Texas tastes better and is more tender than the fox squirrel.
In 1883, the first water well was drilled in Crockett County. Prior to this, limited water supplies meant limited cattle industry. But soon after this first water well was completed, wells and windmills spread throughout the county. With reliable water resources, ranchers found that cattle-raising was a viable industry. Progress also brought difficulties. Ranchers were soon fencing their properties to protect their grass and water, and by the 1920’s the fencing had blocked all the routes used to drive cattle from Crockett County to the railroad loading pens in Barnhart, about 30 miles north of Ozona.
But the early leaders of the county had a history of working together and quickly organized the Ozona-Barnhart Trap Company in 1924. By buying or leasing land for trails, traps (small pastures), pens and water wells, the group established a corridor for the livestock to be driven to the railroad without crossing fences or destroying grass supplies. With branch lines throughout the county, the main branch of the trail was about 34 miles long, from south of Ozona to the loading pens in Barnhart.
Although the demand for the trail was diminished by the advent of cattle truck transportation, the trail continued to be used until the 1950’s. The marker shown in the photograph is located about 11 miles northwest of Ozona on Texas Highway 163, near the site of the McNutt traps, a main hub of the trail. To see this historical area as well as many other historical places in Crockett County, visit Ozona and Hang Your Hat in History!
To view other interesting history facts, visit our Crockett County Historical Markers
Gayfeather - Liatris punctata
A member of the Aster or sunflower family, the gayfeather is known by many other names: Dotted Gayfeather, Dotted Blazingstar, Nebraska Blazing Star, Button Snakeroot, and Starwort, just to name a few. The word punctate actually means “dotted”, and refers to the speckles that appear on the leaves.
Very versatile, the plant has been used for centuries. Both boiled and baked, Native American tribes used it for many different medicinal purposes. The Blackfeet used boiled roots to reduce swelling. The Omaha tribe used powdered roots to make a poultice for external inflammation and made a tea from the plant to treat stomachaches and other abdominal troubles. Pawnees boiled the leaves and roots together to help their children when they suffered from diarrhea. The root was even used as a treatment for snakebite! Today the plant is gaining in popularity as an ornamental because it can be used in fresh floral arrangements and winter bouquets as well as dried arrangements.
The plant grows to be only a few feet tall, but its thick taproot can reach as deep as 15 feet. Laterally, it will spread to about three to four feet. Because of the deep root, the plant is very drought-tolerant. It is also fire-tolerant and will re-sprout to continue spreading its seed, usually by the wind. Some samples of the gayfeather have been known to live over 35 years!
The plant is feed and forage for many animals and insects, including white-tailed deer, elk, livestock, butterflies and bees. Rodents will eat the flower buds, seedlings, new leaves and roots of this species.
You can view the gayfeather shown in the photo in the Crockett County Interpretive Trail located across the parking area from the Ozona Chamber of Commerce & Visitor Center.
One of the many species of birds that can be observed in the Ozona area is the Black-chinned hummingbird. These birds may be found in many areas across the United States and Mexico. Very adaptable, their natural habitats range from mountain forests, deserts and coastal plains. Many migrate to the Gulf Coast or Mexico to spend their winter months in a warm climate. Less than four inches long, the males of this species are identified by the black chin bordered by the thin strip of iridescent purple. The purple strip is only visible when the light strikes at just the right angle. Females do not have the purple strip. Their bodies are primarily green on the top with lighter shades underneath. When the babies hatch, they are almost featherless, but within three weeks, they grown a complete set. Molting usually begins in November, but will not be totally complete until April or May.
The male hummingbirds can be very territorial, especially around feeders, and will become increasingly so as breeding season approaches. However, when food is plentiful, the hummingbirds will rarely show their aggressive behavior. When trying to defend an area or attract a female, the males will dive in a U-shaped swoop as much as 50 to 100 feet, passing close to the predator or female at the bottom of the dive.
The females construct well-camouflaged nests in trees or shrubs from plant fibers, spider webs, and lichens. Some research suggests that they purposefully choose to nest near larger, predatory birds as a way of defense. This seems counter-productive, but the larger birds are rarely interested in the hummingbirds and deter other pests from coming near the hummingbird eggs or newly-hatched chicks. The females usually lay from 1 to 3 tiny eggs which will hatch after a period of about 12 to 16 days.
The hummingbirds have an extremely fast metabolism which requires a large amount of sugary nectar. They feed on over 90 species of flowers, and have incorporated hummingbird feeders into their normal diet. They also eat small insects and spiders, especially when hatching young. These birds can fly forward, backward, sideways and even on their backs. They can hover, take off vertically and are able to pivot around a stationary axis. Their wings beat at 50 beats per second and this rapid wing movement produces the humming sound for which they are named. Smaller birds wings can move even faster than large. The massive muscles necessary to move in this way actually make up a third of their body weight.
Many types of birds and butterflies visit our Crockett County Interpretive Trail!
In the late 1940’s and 1950’s the South African Department of Agriculture set out to produce a breed of sheep that would give high quality meat and thrive in arid and semi-arid environments. By crossing Dorset Horn rams with Blackhead Persian ewes, they were able to breed an easy care, thick-skinned sheep that was extremely adaptable and flourished even in irregular and low rainfall areas. Using the first syllable from Dorset and Persian, the name Dorper was chosen for the new breed. The Dorper skin is one of the most highly prized sheepskins in the world and is marketed under the name of Cape Glovers. Dorpers do not need to be sheared because they shed their thin wool coats in the spring allowing them to withstand extreme heat in the summer.
The American Dorper Sheep Breeders’ Society was formed in December of 1995, and the Dorper breed was brought to the United States shortly thereafter. The popularity of the breed continues to spread and is one of the fastest growing breeds of sheep in the nation. Currently, ranchers in Crockett County are turning to this sheep to increase efficiency and production even in arid conditions.
Gaspar Castaño de Sosa
Gaspar Castaño de Sosa was born in Portugal in the mid 1500’s. By the late 1580’s Don Gaspar had moved to New Spain and taken leadership of the Villa de Almadén, now called Monclova, Mexico, located approximately 300 miles south of Ozona, TX. By July 1590, Castaño grew discouraged with the unproductive mines of Almadén and set out with 170 persons, carts, tools, and supplies, headed toward New Mexico. His journey brought him north to the Rio Grande near Del Rio, TX, then continued following the Pecos River, passing through western Crockett County and on to the area north of present day Albuquerque. Unfortunately, Castaño had not received permission to start a new colony and was charged with leading an unauthorized party into New Mexico. Arrested and returned to New Spain, he was convicted and exiled to the Philippines. Though his sentence was eventually overturned, it was too late for Don Gaspar. He was killed aboard a ship in the South China Sea during a slave insurrection.
To view other interesting history facts, visit our Crockett County Historical Markers
The Black-tailed Jackrabbit is not really a rabbit at all. It is a hare. This species is one of the more widely distributed species of jackrabbits in North America, and can be found from central Washington state to Missouri and as far south as Baja, California and Zacatecus, Mexico. Its range is gradually spreading eastward in the Great Plains and they have been introduced in Florida, Maryland, New Jersey and Virginia. Although they can live up to 5 or 6 six years, they usually are killed by predators much younger than that.
Growing to a length of about 2 feet, the average Black-Tailed Jackrabbit weighs between 3 to 6 pounds. They have extremely large ears, which help them to regulate their body temperature in the hot arid environments. Their fur is a peppery brown color with a dark stripe down the back.
Lean and lanky, Black-tailed Jackrabbits are very fast and have been known to run at speeds up to 30-40 miles per hour. They can jump a distance of over 10 feet in a single bound. An important food source of eagles, hawks, owls and other raptors as well as carnivorous mammals like coyotes, foxes and wild cats, the jackrabbit is usually only active at dusk or night, preferring to spend the day in a hollowed out spot under a shade tree. When trying to evade one of its predators, the jackrabbit will run in a zig-zag pattern. It also flashes the white underside of its tail to confuse its pursuer and warn other jackrabbits of the danger.
The young are born fully furred with their eyes open. Mobile in just minutes, the babies, called leverets, are not guarded by the mother. She will separate the litter, placing each one in a separate spot. She does not stay with the leverets, and only comes near for feeding. The leverets nurse for 3 or 4 days and are completely independent within a month. Adult rabbits mate year round, and the female may have up to 4 litters a year, with 1 to 6 leverets in each litter. This rapid ability to reproduce often leads to overpopulations and can lead to die offs, with numbers of jackrabbits in an area fluctuating wildly. This species does not migrate or hibernate, and each rabbit’s habitat is only about 1 square mile or less.
Black-tailed Jackrabbits are strict vegetarians, feeding on grasses, shrubs, and wildflowers. Usually found in prairies and pastures, they use the openness to help them spot their predators before the predators spot them. Jackrabbits rarely drink water, getting most of their fluid from the plants they eat. Regarded by many as pests, fifteen jackrabbits can eat as much as a full-grown cow. They are also a host to many parasites such as fleas, ticks, lice and mites, so hunters sometimes avoid collecting them.
Also known as a short-horned lizard or horny toad, this reptile has a short, blunt head and a flattened body covered with sharp points. Found mostly in arid, desert areas, there are over a dozen different species found throughout North and Central America. Their coloring can range from a caliche-colored tan to a red-brown, depending on their environment. The shape of their bodies combined with the numerous spines covering their bodies make them easily camouflaged. Dining primarily on ants, they have been known to also eat grasshoppers, beetles and spiders. Often prey of other creatures, including hawks, snakes, coyotes, and more, some species have the ability to squirt blood from the ducts in the corners of their eyes, shooting streams up to distances of three feet. Besides being impressive, this blood contains a chemical that is noxious to dogs, wolves and coyotes. The various species have been in decline throughout their natural ranges, due to efforts to eradicate ants – their primary food source. Many have been gathered as pets, also contributing to the reduction of the number of horned toads found in the wild.